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Agronomy: Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the range of temperature sensitivity?
  2. For spring planting why do you sell a short maturity hybrid
  3. I planted three different hybrids at the same time, but one did not pollinate. why?
  4. What steps do you take to ensure your seed will germinate after it's being conditioned?
  5. Can anyone use a seed treatment?
  6. How do long and hot days impact growth?
  7. How do long and hotnights impact growth?
  8. What are other factors (other than heat) dangerous for pollination?
  9. What are the factors favorable for pollination?
  10. What are basic criteria for balancing fertilizer?
  11. What is thecriteria for the most suitable land for corn planting?
  12. What are thebest stages/timing for irrigation?
  13. What arethe best stages/timing for fertilizer application?
  14. What is the Impact ofweeds on yield?
  15. What is the difference between heat & drought resistance, which is more important for Pakistan?
  16. Can we calculate the losses due to early harvesting?
  17. Why you discourage planting in October and November?
  18. What arethe most critical stages for frost & what is the impact of frost?
  19. What are the best methods for corn grain storages,you can suggest to farmers?
  20. Which pest is most dangerous for corn?
  21. What is the future of corn?

1.     What is the range of temperature sensitivity? 

Metabolic activities are affected at temperature > 100 Fo or 40 Co and < 10 Co

2.     For spring planting why do you sell a short maturity hybrid

Different hybrid offerings provide farmers choices to meet their needs to spread planting risks. This is to spread planting risk.  Each hybrid may respond differently in the same environmental conditions.  Multiple offerings avoid environmental risk.  All hybrids of different maturity planted at same time will mature at same time as the heat accumulation for all hybrids is same.  This will be little difference observed in maturity.   

3.     I planted three different hybrids at the same time, but one did not pollinate. why?

Each hybrid may respond differently under same conditions.  This is due to Genetic x Environment interaction which affects hybrid performance. Even the same hybrid planted at same location planted at same location may not perform the same every year.  If you have experience with a particular hybrid being sensitive in a paticular area, you may not want to plant that hybrid in the same area again.      

4.     What steps do you take to ensure your seed will germiate after it's being conditioned?

Seed is randomly tested before dispatch from seed plant for germination.  Efforts are made to ensure that all seed is quality seed that should germinate under ideal conditions and necessary steps are taken to avoid any mishap.   

5.     Can anyone use a seed treatment?

Improper seed treatment affects seed germination and seedling because seed is senstive to chemicals. Dealers and farmers should be educated and knowledgeable about proper seed treatment techniques and handling before use.

6.     How do long and hot days impact growth?

Continuous heat, drought or any stress affects plant growth.  Long and hot periods lasting for more than 24 hours disturb plant cycles and photosynthesis (food making process) which ultimately affects yield. 

7.     How do long and hot nights impact growth?

Long, hot nights cause the plant to go through photorespiration that causes loss of enery and affects plant growth. The plant uses its energy to defend its system, therefore after photorespiration there is no energy left to run the plant metabolism.

8.     What are other factors (other than heat) dangerous for pollination?

  • Very low (<20%) humidity
  • Very high (>80%) humidity
  • Moisture stress
  • Nutrient stress (specially nitrogen)
  • Long duration of rain and continuous wind storms
  • Silk and pollen timing difference.  

9.     What are the factors favorable for pollination?

  • Even germination
  • Sufficient nutrients
  • Soil water availability during pollination
  • Optimum temprature: 30-38 Co
  • Relative humidity: 30%-50%.

10.  What are basic criteria for balancing fertilizer?

NPK 1:0.5:1 or depending on soil test 

11.  What is the criteria for the most suitable land for corn planting?

Well drained loose soils and soils where vegetables can be planted are generally good for corn.

12.  What are the best stages/timing for irrigation?

  • The soil surface should not remain dry for good corn yields
  • Corn should be irrigated frequently during all stages of growth with no water stress from teaseling
  • Pollination to physiological maturity (black layer)    

13.  What are the best stages/timing for fertilizer application?

  • Before tasseling: basal application V6 , V10, V14 leaf stages
  • Before planting: total Phosphorus and Potash fertilizer as basal dose
  • Before silking: total Nitrogen fertilizer in four split doses

14.  What is the Impact of weeds on yield?

It depends on the weed pressure,  generally weeds make 20% loss especially in the early 30 days when the crop is young. 

15.  What is the difference between heat & drought resistance, which is more important for Pakistan?

When there is heat, the plant is affected by drought.  Plant systems do not work effectively in heat >38 Co and It is difficult to separate both.   

16.  Can we calculate the losses due to early harvesting?

It will be difficult to calculate precisely, but early harvesting will cause the grain to weigh less because it is not fully developed.

17.  Why you discourage planting in October & November?

Frost damage may occur before V5 stage and slow or no growth in December due to very low temperature. Therefore, a delay in planting will avoid plant from frost. 

18.  What are the most critical stages for frost & what is the impact of frost?

Just after germination to V5 stage. In this period leaves may die, become yellow, brown and no growth.  Plant will recover before V5 stage when growing point is below soil.

 19.  What are the best methods for corn grain storages, you can suggest to farmers?

  • Shelled corn - dry grain at below 13% moisture
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  • Unshelled cobs can be stored if dry at 20% moisture
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  • Keep in a well aerated place
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  • Avoid excessive moisture and humidity. 
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20.  Which pest is most dangerous for corn?

Shoot fly, borer, shoot worm, army worm and mites, all can reduce corn yield.

21.  What is the future of corn?

There is a huge demand for corn grain in the world and Pakistan. Corn grain is used for biodiesel, food and feed worldwide and as the population increases, the need will continue to grow.


For further queries please contact Pioneer Pakistan representatives.

Last Modified:July 18, 2011
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