Planter Overview Checklist

By Steve Zobrist, Area Agronomist and Jeff Daniels, Seed Technology Manager

Get tips on preventing common seeding problems that result from improper planter setup, maintenance, and operation.

Planter Frame

Hitch Height

Planter hitch
  • This planter hitch is too low
  • 7 x 7 toolbar is sloping downhill
  • Hitch height should be raised to level toolbar for best planter performance


Reminders
No-till coulters
No-Till Coulters too deep   Level your units in the field
Keeton Seed Firmer down pressure lightened   Must be done in motion. Have someone help you watch your row unit
Closing wheel down-pressure lightened   Front of seed box should be 1/2” higher than back of insecticide box

Correct Toolbar Height

Planter toolbar height
  • Bar height should be 20" - 22" from ground level
  • Provides correct down- pressure from springs
  • Allows row unit to run level in seed bed


Level Bar Across Entire Planter
Planter - center frame weight
Stop and think how much weight is added to the center frame of this planter. Two 50-bushel seed tanks plus a 500-gallon fertilizer tank all riding on the center. Four tires pushing the center of the planter farther down into the tilled soil than the wings.
 
Planter bar height
  • On center weighted planters the center section may need to be adjusted to compensate for payload
  • Tillage practices affect bar height across large planters

Seed Transmission Systems

Planter transmission

How much vibration do you have in your drive system?

Check the following:
  • Clutch assembly
  • Bearings/sprockets/idlers
  • All chains
Note: Transmissions need to run smoothly. Any vibration in the drive system will end up at the meters and can cause spacing issues. Sprockets, chains, bearings, meter drives and insecticide drives all need to be checked.:

Check Shaft Alignment

Planter shaft alignment
Shafts must be aligned. If they are misaligned some row units may plant heavier or lighter populations than the main section of the planter.

 

Seed Furrow Creation

No-Till Coulters

No-till coulters If using no-till coulters they need to be 1/4" above the openers.
  • Often running too deep
  • Should run 1/4" above Tru-Vee openers
  • If coulters are too deep:
    - seed will be planted
       too deep
    - openers won't turn

Row Cleaners

Set deep enough to remove trash and not throw soil. In some cases floating cleaners may help.

Floating vs. Fixed
Floating row cleaners
Floating row cleaners follow contours and are less likely to "trench" or "hover."

Opening Disks

Opening disks
  • Check for wear and alignment.
  • Should form “V” trench, not “W”.

JD Opening Disks
JD Opening Disks
  • Must replace if less than 14 1/2"
  • New blades are 15"

Disc Contact Adjustment
Disk contact adjustment
  • Should have between 1 1/2"
    to 2 1/2" of contact on blades
  • Kinze 3000 blades only need 1"
    of contact
  • Proper adjustment creates
    Tru-Vee trenches

CNH Planters
Firming point, shown in red circle, should be replaced when opener disks are replaced. The firmer is designed to run in the bottom of the seed trench.
Planter firming point

 

Seed Drop

Seed Tubes and Firmers

Seed tubes and seed tube guards
  • Check seed tubes and seed tube guards for wear, bending or deformation.
 
Seed tube protectors
  • Seed tube protector worn by contact with opener allows contact between discs and seed tube.
  • Need to keep protectors in good repair to preserve seed tubes.
 
Bullseye Tube with additional wear allowances (left) Standard Tube (right).
Bullseye seed tube, standard seed tube
 
Vibration or bounce of the row unit can cause tumbling and poor seed spacing.
Seed tubes

Keeton Seed Firmers

Seed firmers are designed to push the seed to the bottom of the trench. In wet conditions, soil can build up on the firmers and actually move the seed along the trench.
Seed firmer Seed firmer
 
Seed firmers help eliminate a gap between the seed and the bottom of the seed trench, helping create good seed-to-soil contact and uniform depth within the seed trench.
Planted seed Planted seed
 
Gauge wheels should slightly rub on the disk openers to help create a good seed trench sidewall and keep the openers clean.
Gauge wheel view
Gauge wheel view
Gauge wheel view

 

Covering

Mechanical Pneumatic
Mechanical and pneumatic systems

Opposing Forces

Planter side view
 
Too much down force creates sidewall compaction.
Sidewall compaction effects Sidewall compaction effects
Sidewall compaction effects Sidewall compaction effects
 
Gauge wheels should take effort to spin by hand.
Gauge wheel
 
Closing wheels
  • Closing wheels should be centered on the row.
 
In tougher wet soils, spike closing wheels may help prevent sidewall compaction.
Spike closing wheels

 

Singulation

Finger Pickup Checklist

  • Check finger pickups for wear
  • Replace worn knock-off brushes
  • Replace worn finger pickups and check finger tension
  • Replace worn or grooved faceplates
  • Replace seed conveyers with missing ladders
  • Use graphite for lubrication

Vacuum Systems - Theories of Operation

Check all types of vacuum systems for air leaks and worn seals around the metering units.

Cell Disk - John Deere Cell Disk
Cell disk
  • Seed size sensitive
  • Lower vacuum

Flat Disk - Precision Planting eSet
Flat disk
  • Seed size independent
  • Should have doubles eliminator
  • Higher vacuum
Flat disks are more forgiving of different seed sizes than cell disks. Note the different sizes of seed in the cell disk.

Doubles Eliminators
Doubles eliminators are used with flat disks. Shown are the Precision, Case and Deere singulators.
Doubles eliminators

 

Whole Planter

Central Fill Systems

 

Seed Bridging in Seed Tank
Agitator Shaft
CCS Pressure Gauge
   Symptoms:
  • No seed in mini hopper
  • Lots of air in mini hopper
Suggestions:
  1. Make sure tank pressure is set to the recommended setting
  2. Make sure tank agitator is turning when fan is running
  3. Make sure agitator pins are centered over seed nozzle openings
  4. Start adjusting tank pressure by 1 pound until seed begins to flow


Seed Plugging in Seed Hose
Small Seed
Nozzle Insert
Mini-hopper
   Symptoms:
  • Seed is stuck in seed delivery hose between tank and mini hopper
  • Seed stuck in elbow of mini hopper
Suggestions:
  1. Make sure tank pressure is set correctly for crop being planted
  2. Unplug agitator motor to allow less seed to be picked up
  3. For small seed use tank nozzle inserts

Seed Lubricants Reduce Problems

Proper use of talc and graphite may eliminate a lot of potential problems. Use rate may need to increase for large treated seed and when temperature and humidity are high.

Talc and Graphite

  • Talc removes static
  • Graphite lubricates

Find use rates at Seed Corn Plantability Guide.

Increase use rates for heavily treated seed or when temperature and humidity are high.

 

Refer to the individual planter manufacturer's manual for complete recommendations.

All products are trademarks of their manufacturers.


Use this information as a guide and it should not be the only factor in making decisions.
 
 
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