Although spring flooding of crops is a much more common problem, heavy rainfall in late summer and fall occasionally leads to flooding of fields at or near crop maturity. The extent of damage from fall flooding depends on the crop, stage of maturity, depth of flood waters, period of flooding, amount of lodging caused by flowing water, and other environmental factors. This Field Facts will discuss fall flooding damage to corn.
By virtue of ear height alone, corn fields at maturity are tolerant to moderate levels of flooding. However, flood waters that encompass the ear can cause severe grain quality reductions. Flowing flood waters can also cause lodging of corn plants or weaken roots and stalks so that future lodging is a risk.
Immature corn – If corn kernels have not reached physio-logical maturity, prolonged flooding may slow further yield accumulation. Yield losses would be similar to those caused by other weather conditions that result in premature plant death, including drought, frost or disease (Figure 1). In such cases, yield loss is closely tied to the stage of maturity when damage occurs, and the extent of damage to the plant as a whole. In many cases, damaged plants can still accumulate yield by translocating carbohydrates from stalks, leaves and roots to developing kernels.
Lodging – Few objects in nature can resist flowing water, including corn roots and stalks. Lodging may be evident immediately when flood waters recede, or it may occur later as weakened roots or stalks eventually succumb to fall wind and weather events. Diseases may be transmitted to roots and stalks during even moderate flooding. In addition, lodging places the ear near ground level where it may be submerged and subject to deterioration of grain quality. Where flooding results in lodging, fields should be monitored closely and harvested as soon as practical.
Grain Quality – If ears are submerged by flood waters, grain quality will likely be the primary concern for growers. In addition to period of submersion, corn stage of maturity and weather conditions following flooding determine effect on grain quality. If corn ears that have reached maturity are soaked by flood waters or constant rainfall, “premature sprouting” or “vivipary” of kernels may result (Figure 2).
Milk line starting to appear at top of kernel
Grain Moisture: ~50-55%
~400 GDUs remaining to maturity
Yield loss ~35-40%
1/2 milk line
Grain Moisture: 40-45%
~200 GDUs remaining to maturity
Yield loss ~12-15%
Grain Moisture: 30-35%
0 GDUs remaining to maturity
Yield loss from killing frost at this stage = 0%
Figure 1. Kernel growth stages and approximate grain moisture, GDU’s to maturity (black layer or “no milk line”), and yield losses when photosynthesis ceases due to plant damage.
Figure 2. Corn ear with sprouted kernels.
Scouting fields and scheduling harvest based on crop condition as well as grain moisture are essential in flooded fields. Harvesting some fields early, at grain moistures near 25%, may be necessary to prevent further deterioration of grain quality. On other fields that have retained root, stalk and grain quality, compaction can be prevented by harvesting later, allowing fields to adequately dry.
When grain quality is low, adjust combine settings to minimize trash and broken kernels. Check with the combine manufacturer for machine-specific recommendations. (Combine mechanics or other dealership staff are often a good source for this information.)
Proper storing, drying and maintaining grain quality will minimize problems of flood damaged and sprouted grain.
The foregoing is provided for informational use only. Please contact your Pioneer sales professional for information and suggestions specific to your operation. Product performance is variable and depends on many factors such as moisture and heat stress, soil type, management practices and environmental stress as well as disease and pest pressures. Individual results may vary. Pioneer® brand products are provided subject to the terms and conditions of purchase which are part of the labeling and purchase documents. FF100928 (200811)
VOL. 10, NO. 9