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Planter Overview Checklist

 

Preseason Planter Checklist

By Steve Zobrist, Area Agronomist and Jeff Daniels, Seed Technology Manager

From planter singulation to seed furrow creation, use this preseason planter maintenance checklist to help prevent common seeding problems that result from improper setup, maintenance and operation.

Planter Frame

Hitch Height

Planter hitch
  • This planter hitch is too low
  • 7 x 7 toolbar is sloping downhill
  • Hitch height should be raised to level toolbar for best planter performance

Reminders:

No-till coulters
Left Photo:
  • No-Till Coulters too deep
  • Keeton Seed Firmer down pressure lightened
  • Closing wheel down-pressure lightened
   Right Photo:
  • Level your units in the field
  • Must be done in motion. Have someone help you watch your row unit
  • Front of seed box should be 1/2” higher than back of insecticide box

Correct Toolbar Height

Planter toolbar height
  • Bar height should be 20" - 22" from ground level
  • Provides correct down- pressure from springs
  • Allows row unit to run level in seedbed

 

Level Bar Across Entire Planter

Planter - center frame weight

Stop and think how much weight is added to the center frame of this planter. Two 50-bushel seed tanks plus a 500-gallon fertilizer tank all riding on the center. Four tires pushing the center of the planter farther down into the tilled soil than the wings.

Planter bar height
  • On center weighted planters the center section may need to be adjusted to compensate for payload
  • Tillage practices affect bar height across large planters

Seed Transmission Systems

Planter transmission

How much vibration do you have in your drive system?

Check the following:
  • Clutch assembly
  • Bearings/sprockets/idlers
  • All chains

Note: Transmissions need to run smoothly. Any vibration in the drive system will end up at the meters and can cause spacing issues. Sprockets, chains, bearings, meter drives and insecticide drives all need to be checked.

Check Shaft Alignment

Planter shaft alignment

Shafts must be aligned. If they are misaligned some row units may plant heavier or lighter populations than the main section of the planter.

Seed Furrow Creation

No-Till Coulters

No-till coulters If using no-till coulters they need to be 1/4" above the openers.
  • Often running too deep
  • Should run 1/4" above Tru-Vee openers
  • If coulters are too deep:
    • seed will be planted too deep
    • openers won't turn

Row Cleaners

Set deep enough to remove trash and not throw soil. In some cases floating cleaners may help.

Floating vs. Fixed

Floating row cleaners

Floating row cleaners follow contours and are less likely to "trench" or "hover."

Opening Disks

Opening disks
  • Check for wear and alignment.
  • Should form “V” trench, not “W."

JD Opening Disks

JD Opening Disks
  • Must replace if less than 14 1/2"
  • New blades are 15"

Disk Contact Adjustment

Disk contact adjustment
  • Should have between 1 1/2" to 2 1/2" of contact on blades
  • Kinze 3000 blades only need 1" of contact
  • Proper adjustment creates Tru-Vee trenches

CNH Planters

The firming point, shown in red circle below, should be replaced when opener disks are replaced.

Planter firming point

The firmer is designed to run in the bottom of the seed trench.

Seed Drop

Seed Tubes and Firmers

Seed tubes and seed tube guards
  • Check seed tubes and seed tube guards for wear, bending or deformation.
Seed tube protectors
  • Seed tube protector worn by contact with opener allows contact between disks and seed tube.
  • Need to keep protectors in good repair to preserve seed tubes.

Bullseye seed tube, standard seed tube

Bullseye Tube with additional wear allowances (left). Standard Tube (right).

Vibration or bounce of the row unit can cause tumbling and poor seed spacing.

Seed tubes

Keeton Seed Firmers

Seed firmers are designed to push the seed to the bottom of the trench. In wet conditions, soil can build up on the firmers and actually move the seed along the trench.

Seed firmer Seed firmer

Seed firmers help eliminate a gap between the seed and the bottom of the seed trench, helping create good seed-to-soil contact and uniform depth within the seed trench.

Planted seed Planted seed

Gauge wheels should slightly rub on the disk openers to help create a good seed trench sidewall and keep the openers clean.

Gauge wheels
Gauge wheels
Gauge wheels

Covering

Mechanical Pneumatic
Mechanical and pneumatic systems

Opposing Forces

Planter side view

Too much down force creates sidewall compaction.

Sidewall compaction effects Sidewall compaction effects
Sidewall compaction effects Sidewall compaction effects

Gauge wheels should take effort to spin by hand.

Gauge wheel

Closing wheels

Closing wheels should be centered on the row.

Spike closing wheels

In tougher wet soils, spike closing wheels may help prevent sidewall compaction.

Singulation

Finger Pickup Checklist

  • Check finger pickups for wear
  • Replace worn knock-off brushes
  • Replace worn finger pickups and check finger tension
  • Replace worn or grooved faceplates
  • Replace seed conveyers with missing ladders
  • Use graphite for lubrication

Vacuum Systems - Theories of Operation

Check all types of vacuum systems for air leaks and worn seals around the metering units.

Cell Disk - John Deere Cell Disk
Cell disk
  • Seed size sensitive
  • Lower vacuum
Flat Disk - Precision Planting eSet
Flat disk
  • Seed size independent
  • Should have doubles eliminator
  • Higher vacuum
Flat disks are more forgiving of different seed sizes than cell disks. Note the different sizes of seed in the cell disk.
Doubles Eliminators
Doubles eliminators are used with flat disks. Shown are the Precision, Case and Deere singulators.
Doubles eliminators

Whole Planter

Central Fill Systems

Central Fill Systems Central Fill Systems Central Fill Systems

 
Seed Bridging in Seed Tank
   
CCS Pressure Gauge
CCS Pressure Gauge
Agitator Shaft
Agitator Shaft
 

Symptoms:

  • No seed in mini hopper
  • Lots of air in mini hopper

Suggestions:

  1. Make sure tank pressure is set to the recommended setting
  2. Make sure tank agitator is turning when fan is running
  3. Make sure agitator pins are centered over seed nozzle openings
  4. Start adjusting tank pressure by 1 pound until seed begins to flow

 
Seed Plugging in Seed Hose
   
Small Seed Nozzle Insert
Small Seed Nozzle Insert
Mini-hopper
Mini-hopper
 

Symptoms:

  • Seed is stuck in seed delivery hose between tank and mini hopper
  • Seed stuck in elbow of mini hopper

Suggestions:

  1. Make sure tank pressure is set correctly for crop being planted
  2. Unplug agitator motor to allow less seed to be picked up
  3. For small seed use tank nozzle inserts

Seed Lubricants Reduce Problems

Proper use of talc and graphite may eliminate a lot of potential problems. Use rate may need to increase for large treated seed and when temperature and humidity are high.

Talc and Graphite

  • Talc removes static
  • Graphite lubricates

Increase use rates for heavily treated seed or when temperature and humidity are high.

Find use rates at Seed Corn Plantability Guide.

 

Refer to the individual planter manufacturer's manual for complete recommendations.

All products are trademarks of their manufacturers.

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